The lack of a budgetary system and restraints on issuing currency caused the devaluation of the currency, wreaking havoc on the Roman economy; By the fifth century, the Roman economy had collapsed and large areas were depopulated. These rebellions had the same effect as Roman civil wars had, as they disrupted the Chinese trade networks and deprived the state of a major source of taxation revenue. The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire were similar in their falls because they both fell to nomadic invaders, and because they both fell because of a decline in economic trade. Jin officials attempted to outdo each other in luxury. [69] During the reign of Emperor Wu, roads were built to connect newly-conquered territories in what is now Yunnan in the far southwest as well as the Korean Peninsula in the far northeast.[70]. These policies, together with the social unrest caused by the extravagance of the Jin officials and the infighting of the Jin royal family, soon lead to the collapse of the Jin.[76]. The Renaissance a thousand years later marked the conscious return to the classical heritage. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Huns were first defeated by Han dynasty and drove out of Asia into Europe. The basis of Roman society, as proclaimed by the laws, was the family, headed by a pater familias, who had power over his dependents. Although North China again fell in 352 AD, the memory of Ran Min kept the barbarians from reverting to their previous slaughter. Roman Empire vs. Han Empire. The Romans had different engineering accomplishments, than that of the Han. PLAY. Taxes on agriculture were reduced from 1/15 of crops during the Qin dynasty to 1/30 of crops; for a 12-year period, they were reduced to nothing at all. The weakened Roman army could not cope with this threat; by 476, the Western Roman Empire had collapsed. However, Roman women were quite free and had greater control over their wealth and property than preceding states in the Mediterranean. Needham, Joseph. Pre-order Total War: Three Kingdoms today to get the Yellow Turban Rebellion for free. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to … Han society was divided into a number of classes, all played a role within this complex society. This can partly be compared to the southern Han that managed to survive fall of northern China to barbarian tribes. As written by Han authors, roads built during the Han were tamped down with metal rammers, yet there is uncertainty over the materials used; Joseph Needham speculates that they were rubble and gravel. This gave the Chinese an advantage because their goods were in high demand in the Roman cities, while Roman glassware was exported to China. Rome built the Pantheon using their newly invented building material, concrete. [57] A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 timber bridges and 54 aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and even used to carry vehicles. As with the vault and the dome, the Romans were first to fully realize the potential of arches, for forming interior spaces and building structures. 1) Decimal fractions rounded to the nearest tenth. Chapter 7 summary of W.W. Norton & Company, Worlds apart, Worlds together, A History of the world, second edition. Their development was steady and with the right leader, both civilizations were … Han Empire-East-Inherits an already established empire/culture-Peaceful hereditary transfer of power (stable)-Most products are grown in China, less travel/trade-Xiongnu overtakes. Oratory was an important tradition in the Roman Empire; passed on from the Greeks, Orators were common in Rome. Also, Chinese victories against the Xiongnu enabled trade to the west. | At its peak around the mid-2nd century AD, Roman stock is estimated at 10,000 t, five to ten times larger than the combined silver mass of medieval Europe and the Caliphate around 800 AD. Wudi believed that laws should severely penalize those who were disobedient and recompense those who were obedient. Bailey, L. H., and Wilhelm Miller. How about receiving a customized one? The several centuries of success for Han China (202 BCE – 220 CE) and the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) pinpoint possibilities for comparison in the classical period. [9][10]. [38], The Han population is estimated to be around 60 million at around 2AD. Revenue was also to a large extent sustained by state monopolies of salt and iron. The influence of Roman law would long outlast the empire. 25–29. In 581 AD, a Chinese general overthrew the last barbarian dynasty in the north and conquered the south eight years later, reunifying China (see Sui Dynasty). Furthermore, this state iron monopoly was quickly overturned later. [53]. Temin, Peter (2006): "Estimating GDP in the Early Roman Empire", Lo Cascio, Elio (ed. On the other hand, the Chinese advanced in science and art by inventing paper for use in literature and business; and an irrigation system that reached extensively across their fields allowing them to effectively water their crops. Han China and Rome’s Empires had the same causes for their declines, but their effects are different. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty China: A Comparison. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to citizens and another that applied to non-citizens. The Han used Confucian thought as the primary ideology of the empire, in which the welfare of the people was the concern of the state and the basis of legitimate rule. [72] Since a large amount of silt had built up over time at the bottom of the Zhengguo Canal (causing flooding), in 95 BCE another project was initiated to tap irrigation waters from further up the Jing River, requiring the dredging of a new 100 km (62 mi) long canal following a contour line above the Zhengguo. Evidence of this prosperity was shown in an account of the Han official Gan Ying who stated about the Roman Empire: This country produces plenty of gold, silver, and precious jewels, luminous jade, bright moon pearls, fighting cocks, rhinoceroses, coral, yellow amber, opaque glass, whitish chalcedony, 8 red cinnabar, green gemstones, drawn gold-threaded and multi-coloured embroideries, woven gold-threaded net,delicate polychrome silks painted with gold, and asbestos cloth. The surplus of grain made available by these advances made the empire very stable compared to other ancient states; during the rule of the Jin emperor, it was recorded that so much grain and silver was stored in the imperial treasury that: the ropes used to hang the bags of coins were breaking apart due to the weight, and bags of grain which had been stored for several years were rotting because they had been neglected and not eaten. The religion in ancient Rome was much more extensive than the Han religion. [62] Hills were cut through and deep ravines filled in. These two empires have many similarities and differences between their political structures. Two Empires. Late during the Han dynasty, aristocrats' accumulation of land in massive quantities forced large numbers of peasants off their lands. D. B. Wagner speculates a Han production of 5000t from official state Iron Offices based on pig iron production in the late 19th-early 20th century, but he himself admits this figure is likely inaccurate: "Obviously one cannot lend much credence to this figure..." This estimate is likely inaccurate for several reasons: First because it only estimates production from official Iron Offices of 2AD during when Han state monopolies prohibited private iron production, creating a low estimate in the existence of iron producing facilities. Meanwhile, Augustus of Rome, enforced a Republic government, in which the people voted for who they thought should become their representatives and officials. First of all, they had very successful trade relations. [67] Fortified Han roadways were built as far west as Shanshan (Loulan) near the Lop Desert, while Han forces utilized routes that traversed north of the Taklamakan Desert towards Kashgar. [56], The Romans were the world's first major bridge builders. China and Rome also had advances in art and science. [72] The Grand_Canal_(China) was also maintained and expanded. This stemmed from a belief that as long as they continued to observe the practices of their government, they would be able to run it successfully and would be able to live without fear of being challenged or overthrown. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝) emerged as a principal power in East Asia in 221 BCE after the fall of the Qin Dynasty in 206 BCE. The Han maintained and expanded the massive engineering works of their predecessor Qin. The essence of Roman society was relationships governed by laws and courts. While the population size of the Roman empire has been traditionally given as 55-60 million, recent estimates of its demographic peak in the mid-2nd century AD range from 60-70 million ("low count") to over 100 million … The differences are also fairly evident. That being said, they also shared an extensive variety of similarities. Gabriel, Richard A. Available at SSRN: Robertson, D.S. The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanum) controlled the Western Mediterranean. China at that time was in her “Warring States” period and confined to the eastern seaboard. Alternatively, the Han Dynasty adopted Confucianism. Wealthy men often bankrolled artists. The several centuries of success for Han China (202 BCE – 220 CE) and the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) pinpoint possibilities for comparison in the classical period. Governing them were the scholar-officials, educated men who were interpreters of the empire's official ideology, Confucianism. (Nov. 2009): "The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire". Wudi ruled only as a political leader of his country, never a religious leader. However, the Romans organized their economy in a way that was hitherto unprecedented in the Mediterranean. In order to facilitate trade and promote unity among the people, the Qin dynasty standardized measurements for weights, coins, writing, and even the length of wheels. They both feel due to internal struggles, while the Roman Empire also faced external threats. Every significant Roman town had public entertainment facilities such as theaters and amphitheaters, the most famous of which was the Colosseum in Rome. A new class of merchants grew as long-distance trade expanded, aided by the new roads and canals built by the Qin dynasty. Why is the Han Dynasty compared to the Roman Empire? The deteriorating Roman economy forced the emperors to issue less valuable coins, creating massive inflation; by the end of the Roman empire, the silver coin had only 1/100th the silver content of the silver coin issued under Augustus, leading to economic chaos[75]. Augustus was the political and religious leader of his people for the length of his reign. This, together with a weakening of the central government and new religious movements such as the Yellow Turbans, sparked full revolt. Many Han officials were appointed based on their ability to write essays explaining Confucian thought and how it applied to the administration of the Empire. The Qin state, however, believed trade produced nothing of lasting value and encouraged the production of crops over trade[11]. The Roman peasantry and slaves, taxed heavily by the aristocrats, also grew disgruntled. Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 187ff. Roman commerce was very frequent during the Pax Romana. A large proportion of overand underuse by efl learners of empire roman and dynasty and compare essay contrast han a discussion of those seven words. Coinage was issued in large amounts; however, since China lacked silver, the basic issue were bronze coins along with the rare but more valuable silver coins. But its importance is not the product of Western bias: the Roman Empire was … The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. The Romans experienced many losses through attacks from Germanic tribes. ; cf. The Han Dynasty reached the Pax Sinica, under the rule of Emperor Wu Ti, while the Roman Empire reached the Pax Romana, under the rule of Augustus (Octavian). Wagner, Donald B.: "The State and the Iron Industry in Han China", NIAS Publishing, Copenhagen 2001. However, the position was dangerous; out of 22 emperors between Augustus and the third century, 15 died by murder or suicide. These two countries differed in how they fed their populations because of their cities arrangements and as a result of their planning. Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1999). Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, Comprising Suggestions for Cultivation of Horticultural Plants, Descriptions of the Species of Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, and Ornantal Plants Sold in the United States and Canada, Together with Geographical and Biographical Sketches. This greatly helped trade, which was already flourishing during the warring states period. The Han capitalized on another form of water engineering - canals. Metal production would have further decreased during the Qing Dynasty's collapse and subsequent civil wars in the early 20th century. Many works of art and construction were done during this period[49].[50]. They left institutions, technology and infrastructure that would influence successors for centuries to come. These include repairs and renovation work on the Dujiangyan Irrigation System of Sichuan and Zhengguo Canal of Shaanxi, both of which were built by the previous State of Qin. The examination was tremendously rigorous, and whoever received the highest score was given the bureaucratic position. [68] A vast network of roads, fortified passes, and wooden bridges built over rushing torrents in steep gorges of the Qinling Mountains was consolidated during the Han, known as the gallery roads. [39] While the population size of the Roman empire has been traditionally given as 55-60 million, recent estimates of its demographic peak in the mid-2nd century AD range from 60-70 million ("low count") to over 100 million inhabitants ("high count").[40]. Afterward, the Huns attacked the Romans themselves. Their influence is so profound that the majority of China's people still refer to themselves as "people of Han" (Traditional Chinese: 漢人)[2], and Chinese history refers to the period of the Hans Dynasty as a golden age. Scheidel gives this as a contributing cause to the relative paucity of comparative studies betwee… Goldsmith, Raymond W. (1984): "An Estimate of the Size and Structure of the National Product of the Early Roman Empire". Similarities existed in terms of their organization, leadership and justice system among others. They shared a strict code of law, though one was used to govern all, while the other pertained to citizens and noncitizens. In theory, everyone could become an official[44]. He replied "Of course the pork is excellent! Many institutions were set up to settle legal disputes, and Roman law appeared in every town governed by the empire. In enhancing administration, both empires were divided into distinct territories, for instance, the Roman was divided into provinces whereas the Mongol was divided into four major divisions. Roman Empire Vs. Han Dynasty Compare And Contrast Essay Both the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were similar in their fall, in that they suffered through significant factors like Germanic Invasions that made them decline in power. Although agriculture was important, so was trade: An extensive road network, along with massive amounts of coinage, were issued to facilitate trade. This relates to the Conrad-Demarest model. Their trade routes differed in their physical nature, but both spanned many miles and created a network of trade throughout the continent. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. Chinese innovations in agriculture were also important; the introduction of the cow-driven plow, iron farm tools, water mills, the wheelbarrow and other technologies greatly improved the agriculture of the Han. [26] In 150 AD, the Roman Empire had an estimated stock of 10,000 t silver. Though these civilizations were very different in their political development, they also had several similarities. Account of the Western Regions, Hou Han Shu, Gan Ying, <, Princeton University, Monetary systems of the Roman and Han Empires, <. Cursive numbers not directly given by the authors; they are obtained by multiplying the respective value of GDP per capita by estimated population size. and the Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. Comparing the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Similarly, both empires were large; they covered large geographical areas with huge populations. STUDY. They can also help and American audience combine more familiar knowledge, usually about Rome, with an appreciation for less familiar classical achievements, as in China. The Romans, however, traded with the Middle East, Italy, India, and China. When the Jin collapsed into civil war, the barbarians rose up in revolt. The Roman Empire had gradually been losing power to the Huns and other barbarian tribes like the Visigoths to the point where Rome was sacked in in 410 causing the western part of the Roman empire to be on the brink of collapse until the final blow was struck when a revolt killed the final emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Birth was an important indicator of social position. Unfortunately, there were not enough troops to defend the Roman Empire’s borders, and they suffered more frequent attacks from Germanic tribes as a result. In the Western Roman empire is collapsed, the Byzantine empire, the Eastern Roman empire continues on for roughly a thousand years more. In order to make trade and travel easier, many maps were drawn, specifying distances before cities [5].Road networks were built to coordinate with trade at sea. Lastly, both countries also suffered from attacks by different nomadic groups. Public entertainment centers stresses the importance public citizens had in Roman life. Italy is considered the richest region, due to tax transfers from the provinces and the concentration of elite income in the heartland; its GDP per capita is estimated at having been around 40%[22] to 66%[23] higher than in the rest of the empire. The forum of the senate generated many impressive and able speakers, whose prose is still recorded today[52]. This process helped knowledgeable people become civil servants; because of this scholars became the most elite persons in Chinese society. Some Han generals such as Wei Qin and Hui Zhu Bing began their lives as servants' sons. Copper and bloomery iron smelting in Central China by David Larreina-García: Ancient Chinese copper smelting, sixth century BC by D. B. Wagner: Mining and Smelting Technology and the Politics of Bronze in Shang and Western Zhou China: Patterson 1972, p. 228, table 6; Callataÿ 2005, pp. Both of these empires utilize the policies and practices of previous political governments to help ensure their success. The Roman Empire had the general idea to expand and conquer many countries. Despite their many similarities, the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were very different. In order to further improve the crop, the state invested heavily in large irrigation projects in areas such as Shanxi. Both of these cultures obtained peace at the peak of their trading and economic prosperity. For the lower classes, the fastest way to advance socially was the army or trade[42]. However, in the later stages of the Han empire, a major problem arose: the Han landowners' accumulation of land, along with the state's taxes, resulted in a large horde of landless peasants from which costly rebellions occurred. The network of roads built throughout China enabled trade on a large scale. Two very famous classical empires were the Roman in the Mediterranean from 27BCE to 476CE and the Han in East Asia from 206BCE to 220CE. As agriculture shifted from self-sufficient manors to free farmers producing goods that were in demand, landowners began to use contracts and money to strike bargains with laborers and with each other. Conversely, China built store houses early on and did not live in such close quarters with everyone else. During this period, China was divided into a Northern area ruled by non-Han Chinese rulers that were gradually sinicizing, and a southern area ruled by Chinese rulers who were regarded by historians as legitimate. Needham, Joseph. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? China, however, used a single code of law for all their citizens and conquered peoples, and used a long and treacherous trail in their trade; that lead to the Middle East. They have all the precious and rare things that come from the various foreign kingdoms. Let a Professional Writer Help You, © New York Essays 2020. Once, the Emperor Wu visited the home of an official. Where the Chinese province of Shanxi produced 160,000 tons of iron per year in 1870, it only produced 50,000 tons of iron per year by 1898. For once, agriculture became centered on large plantations called latifundia [4]., who employed hundreds of slave laborers and producing various crops for urban markets. Rome imported grain from Africa. There were two major similarities between the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty: the large land areas under their control and the fact that both empires peaked at around the same time in history. Even though these two civilizations held many differences, they also shared rulers who personally oversaw their governments to prevent numerous dilemmas and used expansive trade routes to build up their economies and further their influence in the world. Are You on a Short Deadline? [47]. to 476 C.E. While in Europe, Huns launched attacks on the German tribes living north of the empire, forcing them to invade the Roman empire. The presence of the Mediterranean made it easy for sea travel to shuttle goods throughout the Empire. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty of imperial China coexisted with Parthia and Kushan, spanning the mid-latitude of Eurasia and northern Africa. (2016, Aug 15). While the elite could enjoy a relatively wealthy life and could expect to become officials and hold high positions, lower classes could not expect such luxury. Confucianism also asserted that "A man, even though he may be poor, can by his acts be a gentleman. Around 2,000 years ago, two great empires stood at either side of Eurasia. China worked on expanding her boarders using military force, eventually covering more land than any previous dynasty. The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. Michael Grant, History of Rome (New York: Charles Scribner, 1978), 264. There have been some rough estimates of Han and the Roman industry based on the metallurgical production of later dynasties and time periods. ): Hong, Sungmin; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Patterson, Clair C.; Boutron, Claude F.: "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice". Women in poorer families did not have such luxury and often worked in the fields with their husbands or acted as entertainers. [1] This research project compares the economic, social, technological and military situations of the Romans and the Hans. The Roman Empire's network of roads made it very easy for traders to travel throughout the territory of the Roman Empire. Each social group had well-defined roles. They had developed economies, relying mainly on agriculture and on commerce. They could not be subject to cruel punishments. (1986c). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. As with other ancient economies, agriculture was the basis of Roman economy. Not only did they influence those around them in their time, but they have also influenced people throughout the ages and will continue to do so. The Roman and Han Empires were vast realms kept under control by vast state machinery (for the standards of the age) and ruling over a large part of their respective ecumene. Organizational Behavior and Structure of the Roman Empire in Gladiator; Roman Empire; Protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire; Compare & Contrast “the Story of an Hour” & “a Respectable Woman” - the Awakening of Female Consciousness; The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty had its fair share of similarities and differences. Roman society was a relatively hierarchical society. [59], These bridges were part of the Roman road system. Many of these were related to each empire’s economy, government, and social structure. ]: The Macmillan Co, 1900. and the Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. [28] The Roman production of copper, the basis for bronze and brass alloys, remained unsurpassed again until the Industrial Revolution. The basis of this society were free peasants, who formed the base of the tax revenues of the state and who produced most of the agricultural crop. The Roman Empire has long been the empire par excellence for the Western world. While the Han Dynasty designed its leadership policies based on Confucian ideas and concepts, the Roman Empire imposed governance based on Roman laws and classical teachings (Ropp 36). They rapidly advanced Chinese technology, and created the cultural and political foundations for much of East Asia. Men were expected to be able to create a poem on the spot; a popular drinking game was to do a "rock-paper-scissors"(with ancient equivalents)(Chinese:行酒令), after which the loser would either cite a poem on the spot or be forced to drink a cup of wine. The Han Empire rose and had overall ideas to promote the state, joining two past ideas of the Qin and Zhou dynasties. Hereditary positions came back later, as evidenced by the fact that the founder of the Tang dynasty was the hereditary duke of Tang, and regional governors were allowed to pass titles on. Ocean exchange was more affordable than land exchange and the way that Rome was to a greater degree a maritime domain than the Han Administration implied that trade assumed a more prominent job in the Roman economy. A Revision of the Estimates". They pioneered a political system and social structure in China that lasted for almost 2,000 years. Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://newyorkessays.com/essay-han-dynasty-and-roman-empire-compare-and-contrast/, Save Time On Research and Writing. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp , 2001. Patterson 1972, p. 216, table 2; Callataÿ 2005, pp. Han Dynasty. 365f. By 100 BCE, the Confucian ideals of honor, tradition, respecting the lessons of history, and emphasizing the emperor’s responsibility to heaven became the official doctrine of the empire. Following the disintegration of the feudal system during the Warring states period, the Qin and Han dynasties promoted free farmers which owned and worked their land and could be individually taxed. They also have a fie cloth which some people say is made from the down of ‘water sheep,’ but which is made, in fact, from the cocoons of wild silkworms. Course the pork, and trade '' land in massive quantities forced large numbers of peasants their. 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