(Headline: “For JERA, a path opens for renewable energy as coal-fired thermal power faces unprofitable backwinds”). Ammonia also produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) at a time when the likes of the International Maritime Organization are putting tight restrictions on such pollutants. A well-informed observer in Japan recently told Ammonia Energy that the Japanese “electric utility industry is very much interested in [the co-firing] application of ammonia.”  Why would this be the case? China produces more ammonia than any other country, and produces the majority of its ammonia from coal (Figure 9). Alongside this, ammonia as storage for renewable electricity and a carrier for hydrogen needs to be developed to scale, and its viability when compared to other storage options – such as cryogenic or pressurized hydrogen or organic hydrogen compounds like Methylcyclohexane (MCH)– needs to be determined. Ammonia’s promise Ammonia could help with decarbonisation in multiple ways. coal-based processes are used in small-scale and medium sized plants. Step-by-step anhydrous ammonia production The study demonstrates that ammonium crystallization problem caused by ammonia accumulation, and if the process has ammonia … A coal gasification plant designed to convert coal into ammonia, synthetic natural gas, and electrical power. The five largest users of coal are China, India, the United States, Japan and Russia. in china, about 70% of ammonia is derived from coal, 10% from oil products and 20% from natural gas. Therefore, with green ammonia production, renewable energy can be stored and reused for power generation at consumption points. 1650sTPD (China) Coal to Ammonia / Urea 900sTPD (China) Coal to Ammonia / Urea TVA RAG/RCH SAR Cool Water UBE Lunan Shanghai Weihe Huainan Eastman TECO/Polk Experience with Coal. By Robert F. Service Jul. Blue water gas (BWG) burns with a non-luminous flame which makes it unsuitable for lighting purposes. Ammonia can also act as a storage medium for hydrogen, enabling it to be transported over longer distances more easily. Perhaps exacerbating this issue, India is engaged in a multi-year campaign to drastically increase its own ammonia production using natural gas. July 23, 2020 by Siddhant Dongre Green ammonia uses renewable energy instead of natural gas or coal for producing hydrogen; hence, is an effective way to reduce greenhouse emissions. In this way, demand can be boosted and met with adequate supplies until renewable methods are mature – and economically viable – enough to take over. Ammonia—a renewable fuel made from sun, air, and water—could power the globe without carbon. Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. PEP Review 2017-04 . Figure 5. global ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 with china being the world's largest ammonia producer (ifa, 2010). Coal gasification in IGCC plants holds the potential for easy capture of CO 2 from the syngas and for CO 2 storage in geological formations (CCS). COAL GASIFICATION - ROUTES TO AMMONIA AND METHANOL 1. And as with hydrogen, the ammonia supply chain and infrastructure need to be developed beyond that which the fertiliser industry already has in place, putting it within easy reach of potential future users. Figure 2 shows the theoretical, practical and operating level energy efficiencies for ammonia plants based on steam reforming. Electricity produced by burning imported green ammonia in a gas turbine is projected to have a lower cost position than either of the other two options: JPY ¥18.6 (USD $0.154). Higher blending shares of up to 20% ammonia in energy terms might be feasible with only minor adjustments to a coal power plant. In this context, the ammonia-coal co-firing concept may be the key to the future. Dr Blakers said using the ammonia as a chemical feedstock had greater potential than using it to displace coal in power generation. Oxygen from the ASU is fed to the gasifier to convert coal into synthesis gas (H2, CO, CO2) and CH4. Adding to the risk quotient, according to the story, is the emerging sense that coal is a pariah fuel, no longer appropriate for use in a progressive economy. For an industry that is currently working toward implementation of hard, at-scale assets that will demonstrate the technical ability to produce green ammonia (the green ammonia initiative at Yara’s Pilbara plant in Australia is a prominent example), a demand signal of this nature could be the starting gun that launches ammonia into the energy transition. The energy intensity of these medium-scale coal-based plants is about 55 GJ/t NH 3, while small-scale coal-based plants consume about 53 GJ/t NH 3. Replacing 20% of coal used by the country’s plants will need ammonia imports to reach 20 million tons a year from as soon as 2030 compared to about 200,000 tons now, according to Jera Co. By 2050, the company intends to run the plants entirely on the gas, a potential further jolt for global demand. Ammonia (NH3) is a by-product produced during the production of coke from coking coal in the by-product coke ovens. . As a fuel, it can enable a circular economy in which it can be stored, shipped, used and converted back into its constituent parts: nitrogen and hydrogen. In contrast, ammonia, with the hydrogen and ammonia manufactured from renewable energy would reduce global emissions by more than a factor of 10 compared to coal … In 2016, the Japanese government adopted new energy efficiency standards for electricity generation. Development of Technologies to Utilize Green Ammonia in Energy Market, Cost Evaluation Study on Low Carbon Ammonia and Coal Co-Fired Power Generation. All Rights Reserved. The answer is shown in the third cost bar on the relevant presentation slide. Copyright © 2019 Ammonia Energy Association. However, production increased in 2019 in the Middle East and the United States, with only a minor loss in total global production. A reformer turns the feedstocks into a mixture of gases called synthesis gas (syngas), which includes hydrogen. A fourth part describes integrated processes for production of ammonia from primary raw materials such as hydrocarbons and coal. Three years later, a variety of industry players all came to the same conclusion: adding high-efficiency generating capacity fueled by coal would produce electricity at a higher cost than that produced from natural gas. Industrial ammonia production emits more CO 2 than any other chemical-making reaction. The pro rata Japanese share of the notional 670 million tonnes of ammonia demand would be approximately 35 million tonnes. Ammonia burns CO2-free and is a common, widely produced chemical. It may be corporate concern about the climate and/or a sense of duty to help create the Hydrogen Society. operate SCR systems indicated that about 80 percent use ammonia (anhydrous and aqueous), and the remainder use urea [4]. Premise of Study 3. Ammonia Plant Confidential 2 Executive Summary Ammonia plant is designed to produce 900 tons per day of ammonia, starting from various feedstocks, ranging from heavy re˜nery tails, like asphalt, to medium weight hydrocarbons, up to natural gas. Ammonia production in India is often curtailed (shut down), and the electricity market is regularly roiled by black-outs, both caused by shortages of natural gas among other issues. Coal-based ammonia production in China takes place primarily in small-scale plants (90%). india is the second largest ammonia producer. global ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 with china being the world's largest ammonia producer (ifa, 2010). Ammonia—a renewable fuel made from sun, air, and water—could power the globe without carbon. ‘History in the making’: how PLN is enabling Indonesia’s energy transition. It contained ammonia and coal tar and was processed to recover these valuable compounds. Co-firing with a 20% share of ammonia could reduce the 6 GtCO2/yr annual emissions of these coal plants by 1.2 GtCO2, provided that the ammonia was produced from The part of Syngas that did not become ammonia is sent back to the reactor. Ammonia is the main product of the fertilizer industry. Downloaded 28 February 2017 09:26 AM UTC by Ellen Blue, IHS INC (Ellen.Blue@ihsmarkit.com) But it can also be synthesized by combining nitrogen with hydrogen produced carbon-free using renewable electricity. Hydrogen rich reformer off-gases from oil refineries have also been used as a source of hydrogen. Background 2. At the time, according to an industry source, the plan was to “conquer the [Tokyo] metropolitan area’s [electricity market] liberalization competition by supplying large-scale coal-fired power and cheap electricity.”  This was based on an anticipated cost of JPY ¥12.3 (USD $0.102) per kWh for coal and JPY ¥13.7 (USD $0.113) for natural gas. The basic processing units in a coal-based ammonia plant are the ASU for the separation of O2 and N2 from air, the gasifier, the sour gas shift (SGS) unit, the acid gas removal unit (AGRU), and the ammonia synthesis unit. But reporting in the Japanese press over the last several months reveals that another dynamic may be at play. About 77% of ammonia production is based on steam reforming of natural gas, with most of the remaining production based on heavy-oil or coal-based processes. An alternative path might involve co-firing coal with green ammonia (without any domestic CCS) for some proportion of the useful life remaining for some proportion of Japan’s fleet of coal-fired generating stations, with electric-sector capacity replacements and additions taking the form of ammonia-fired gas turbines. Results and Discussion 4. Site Evidence that Suggests Listing Ammonia as a Candidate Cause. This paper introduces a novel pathway of using coal mine drainage gas, regardless of its methane concentration, as a chemical feedstock for ammonia syngas production without CO2 emissions. within the period. 24 / GE / • Gasification leader since 1948 with 62 facilities operating worldwide • First coal gasification plant in … What are the prospects of Japan starting down this path of demand creation in earnest? The production method uses no natural gas, oil, or coal like conventional and very energy-demanding ammonia production, which means that there is … The obvious question raised by this circumstance is, if both processes yield low-carbon electricity, but the one with ammonia costs more, why bother with ammonia? In Chiba Prefecture, for example (part of the greater Tokyo region) Chugoku Electric Power and JFE Steel have canceled plans involving 1 GW of coal-fired generating capacity. Today, ammonia synthesis starts with generating hydrogen gas from fossil-fuel feedstocks. If the plan unfolds as projected, commercialization would occur sometime before 2025. The Future of Hydrogen, International Energy Agency, June 2019, (More detail on the Japanese efforts can be found in Ammonia Energy stories from April 12, 2018 and September 28, 2017.). The Japanese engineering company JGC shared relevant facts and figures at the 2018 NH3 Energy Topical Conference in a presentation entitled “Cost Evaluation Study on Low Carbon Ammonia and Coal Co-Fired Power Generation.”  According to JGC, the current levelized cost of electricity from coal-fired generation in Japan is approximately JPY ¥6.5 (USD $0.054 at the then-prevailing exchange rate) per kWh, while the levelized cost of coal-generated electricity with domestic CCS is projected at JPY ¥20.2 (USD $0.167). Reaching a 20% blending share would result in an annual ammonia demand of 670 Mt, more than three times today’s global ammonia production. 12, 2018 , 2:00 PM. Ammonia has been tagged for a significant role in the end state. The distributions of ammonia concentration in streams were obtained. Reaching a 20% blending share would result in an annual ammonia demand of 670 Mt, more than three times today’s global ammonia production. Mainland China experienced a sharp increase in coal prices and faced steeper competition in its urea export market resulting in a drastic decline in ammonia production from 2016 to 2018. Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. Fig. By commercialising this renewable production of ammonia, the first sector to benefit from the resulting decarbonisation would be the fertiliser industry itself – and with it the food production supply chain. The story mentions the Powering Past Coal Alliance, a 30-nation coalition whose members include the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Canada, and whose mission is to “advance the transition away from unabated coal power generation.”  The story points out that “large-scale coal-fired thermal power plants are often involved in long-term project finance such as 15 years, but there may be a possibility that investment can not be recovered due to policy changes . To the outside observer, it appears that the energy transition is well and truly underway in the Japanese electricity sector. In 2008, out of global ammonia production of 146 million tonnes/year, 27% used coal as the feedstock; 97% of China's ammonia production used coal in that year, a trend which is expected to continue and increase. Feedstock comparison in ammonia production Natural Gas Heavy Oil Coal Energy Consumption 1 1.3 1.7 Investment Cost 1 1.4 2.4 Production Cost 1 1.2 1.7 Source: EFMA (2000). Co-firing with a 20% share of ammonia could reduce the 6 GtCO2/yr annual emissions of these coal plants by 1.2 GtCO2, provided that the ammonia was produced from low-carbon hydrogen. Mainland China experienced a sharp increase in coal prices and faced steeper competition in its urea export market resulting in a drastic decline in ammonia production from 2016 to 2018. Here is more from the IEA: By 2030 around 1 250 GW of coal power plants worldwide that are currently in operation or under construction could not only still be in service, but could also still have a remaining lifetime of at least 20 years. Approximately two thirds of ammonia produced worldwide uses natural gas as a feedstock followed by coal at less than 30% in 2007, with China accounting for 97% of coal based production (Bharthwaj et al., 2012). in china, about 70% of ammonia is derived from coal, 10% from oil products and 20% from natural gas. However, in regions lacking inexpensive natural gas, such as China, coal gasification is a very important route for ammonia synthesis for production of fertilizers. Premise of Study 3. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information The IEA summarized the development history of the technology as follows: In 2017 the Japanese Chugoku Electric Power Corporation successfully demonstrated the cofiring of ammonia and coal, with a 1% share of ammonia (in terms of total energy content) at one of their commercial coal power stations (120 MW). This part includes discussion of the design of ammonia synthesis converters. Aspen plus software was employed to simulate the opposed multi-burner gasifier (OMB) methanol production process. And ammonia’s potential goes beyond heavy transport. The Future of Hydrogen, International Energy Agency, June 2019. The study investigates an ammonia production plant with a coal gasification system using HTGR nuclear heat only in terms of the industrial utilization of the nuclear heat. Plausible stages of evolution toward substantial decarbonization have been mapped. Co-firing with a 20% share of ammonia could reduce the 6 GtCO2/yr annual emissions of these coal plants by 1.2 GtCO2, provided that the ammonia was produced from low-carbon hydrogen. ... coal, and most commonly natural gas. The energy efficiency of ammonia production depends on the feedstock type that is being used and the plant production scale (IEA, 2007 p.84). 97% production of GHGs), while in the ammonia power plant the majority of GHGs (i.e. Proponent: Australian Future Energy Pty Ltd: Location/s: 15 km north west of Gladstone, in the Gladstone State Development Area. Most ammonia today is produced from natural gas. The story implies that they are estimates for the levelized cost of electricity from newly constructed capacity.). This is because as policymakers stimulate demand for ammonia, sufficient supplies are needed to meet this demand while renewable production ramps up. 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